, The next planned mission to the Jovian system will be the European Space Agency's Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE), due to launch in 2022, followed by NASA's Europa Clipper mission in 2023. , Jupiter's low axial tilt means that the poles constantly receive less solar radiation than at the planet's equatorial region. They, together with hydrogen ions originating from the atmosphere of Jupiter, form a plasma sheet in Jupiter's equatorial plane. Irregular moons that belong to a group share similar orbital elements and thus may have a common origin, perhaps as a larger moon or captured body that broke up. )", "Moons of Jupiter articles in Planetary Science Research Discoveries", Photographs of Jupiter circa 1920s from the Lick Observatory Records Digital Archive, UC Santa Cruz Library's Digital Collections, Interactive 3D gravity simulation of the Jovian system, List of interstellar and circumstellar molecules, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jupiter&oldid=990767543, Astronomical objects known since antiquity, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from May 2015, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2018, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from May 2020, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Pages using multiple image with manual scaled images, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2015, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with a quarter of its mass being helium, though helium comprises only about a tenth of the number of molecules. The top cloud is probably made of ammonia ice, while the middle layer is likely made of ammonium hydrosulfide crystals.  There is also evidence of a rocky ring strung along Amalthea's orbit which may consist of collisional debris from that moon.  The water clouds are assumed to generate thunderstorms in the same way as terrestrial thunderstorms, driven by the heat rising from the interior.  When it was first formed, Jupiter was much hotter and was about twice its current diameter. Now Juno has found even more water. , The Great Red Spot is large enough to accommodate Earth within its boundaries. Jupiter also has white ovals and brown ovals, which are lesser unnamed storms. The latest probe to visit the planet is Juno, which entered into orbit around Jupiter on July 4, 2016. Since Jupiter was probably the first planet to form in the solar system it contains most of the gas and dust in it that isn’t now part of the Sun. The planet Jupiter has been known since ancient times. The four largest moons of Jupiter all orbit within the magnetosphere, which protects them from the solar wind.  The largest is 624 Hektor. During close encounters with Jupiter their orbits are perturbed into a smaller period and then circularized by regular gravitational interaction with the Sun and Jupiter.. Ganymede, the largest of these, has a diameter greater than that of the planet Mercury. None of Jupiter’s large moons is in the right place to deliver water to the locations observed. Given the positions of Earth and Jupiter in their respective orbits, the closest distance between them is 588 million kilometers and the farthest is 968 million kilometers. , In Central Asian Turkic myths, Jupiter is called Erendiz or Erentüz, from eren (of uncertain meaning) and yultuz ("star"). Through infrared and ultraviolet measurements, trace amounts of benzene and other hydrocarbons have also been found. They also confirmed that the Great Red Spot was anticyclonic. Another isolated case; at the inner edge of the Ananke group, it orbits Jupiter in prograde direction.  A "Jupiter mass" (MJ or MJup) is often used as a unit to describe masses of other objects, particularly extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs. The survey initially produced eight more candidate sites as potential impact observations that he and others had recorded between 1664 and 1839. The outermost layer of the atmosphere contains crystals of frozen ammonia. Jupiter is perpetually covered with clouds composed of ammonia crystals and possibly ammonium hydrosulfide. The inner group of four small moons all have diameters of less than 200 km, orbit at radii less than 200,000 km, and have orbital inclinations of less than half a degree. As a result, Jupiter is thought to have about as large a diameter as a planet of its composition and evolutionary history can achieve. However, the formation timescales of terrestrial planets resulting from the grand tack hypothesis appear inconsistent with the measured terrestrial composition. Along with its moons, Jupiter's gravitational field controls numerous asteroids that have settled into the regions of the Lagrangian points preceding and following Jupiter in its orbit around the Sun.  The ancient Chinese also observed the orbit of Suìxīng (歲星) and established their cycle of 12 earthly branches based on its approximate number of years; the Chinese language still uses its name (simplified as 岁) when referring to years of age. By the 1670s, it was observed that when Jupiter was on the opposite side of the Sun from Earth, these events would occur about 17 minutes later than expected.  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